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Table 1 Summary of controversies and challenged legitimacy of sharing economy

From: Managing the innovation legitimacy of the sharing economy

Controversy domains Dark side of sharing economy and examples
Regulatory and legal issues • Employee identification (e.g., Uber identifying their workers as independent contractors
• Limited release of data for policy decisions (e.g., Airbnb refusing to release rental listings)
• Possible violations of anti-trust laws (e.g., Uber’s surge pricing model)
Tax and labor issues • Missed tax revenues (e.g., Uber, Airbnb)
• Poor employee treatment and working environment (e.g., Uber’s workers with lack of protections and violence against drivers)
Consumer concerns • Incidental situations with risks and lack of safeguards for customers (e.g., rape and murder allegations, unmet health and safety regulations)
Social inequality • Imbalanced distributions of gains across those with capital and without capital
• Racial inequality from discrimination
Politics and lobbying • Lobbying and PR to legislators and regulators
• Allure of exclusive access to internal data offered to academic researchers
Economic and societal impact • Increasing competitions rather than increasing demand
• Macroeconomic concerns (e.g., changing communities and worsening living situations in concentrated service areas)
• Reduced use of public infrastructure that will adversely affect the benefit of shared burden
Is sharing really sharing? • Questions about sharing economy whether it is no different than traditional capitalism in the end (e.g., commodifying and monetizing traditional forms of peer interaction)