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Table 2 Measurement items of HEALTHQUAL

From: Assessing healthcare service quality: a comparative study of patient treatment types

Dimensions Measurement variables
(Likert type 5-point Scale, 1 = Worst; 5 = Outstanding)
M SD
Empathy (EM) - Polite attitudes of employees (EM1) 3.32 .96
- Explaining the details (EM2) 3.29 .98
- Listen to the patient (EM3) 3.46 .87
- Understand and consider the patient’s situation (EM4) 3.43 1.08
- A sense of closeness and friendliness (EM5) 3.28 1.01
- Hospital knows what the patient wants (EM6) 3.59 .91
- Hospital understands the patient’s problems as empathy (EM7) 3.17 .89
Tangible (TA) - Degree of securing advanced medical equipment (TA1) 3.84 .81
- Degree of securing medical staff with advanced skills and knowledge (TA2) 3.82 1.21
- Degree of convenient facilities (TA3) 3.43 .98
- Degree of cleanliness of employee uniforms (TA4) 3.61 .78
- Overall cleanliness of the hospital (TA5) 3.53 .74
Safety (SA) - Degree of a comfortable and safe environment for receiving treatment (SA1) 3.78 .96
- Degree of the feeling that doctors would not make misdiagnoses (SA2) 3.93 1.51
- Degree of the feeling that nurses would not make mistakes (SA3) 3.21 .83
- Degree of confidence about the medical proficiency of this hospital (SA4) 3.38 .94
- Degree of a hospital environment that is safe from infection (SA5) 3.45 .92
- Degree of a comfortable and safe environment for patients (SA6) 3.58 1.05
Efficiency (EF) - Attitudes about not using unnecessary medication(EF1) 3.25 .78
- Degree of efforts for proving appropriate treatment methods (EF2) 3.37 1.05
- Reasonable medical expenses(EF3) 3.05 .84
- Appropriateness of cost for medical services provided (EF4) 3.37 .79
- Degree of convenience for treatment procedures (EF5) 3.45 1.01
- Degree of efforts for reducing unnecessary procedures (EF6) 3.71 1.24
Improvements of care service (DI) - Appropriateness of care service provided (DI1) 3.02 .87
- Recognition and efforts for the best treatment by the medical staff (DI2) 3.85 .92
- Improvement in medical condition as a result of efforts and treatment (DI3) 3.07 1.05
- Degree of improved patient condition after using this hospital care(DI4) 3.54 1.21
- Degree of explanations to the patient to prevent related diseases (DI5) 3.24 .88
- Degree of efforts and willingness to prevent disease (DI6) 3.18 .94
- Improvement of disease through this hospital’s treatment (DI7) 3.47 1.01
- Degrees of disease prevention to communities (DI8) 3.81 1.42